ESP TESTING

J.B. Rhine's Experimental
Design Flawed

According to the skeptics, little attempt was made to devise experimental conditions acceptable to critics. The ESP tests have been criticized for motivated scoring errors, faulty shuffling of the cards, correspondence of mental habits, rational inference, optional stopping, invalid methods of statistical evaluation, and on many other grounds. Perhaps it is the question of safeguards against sensory cues that all of the early American ESP experiments are believed to be at fault by British researchers attempting to duplicate Rhine's results.

 







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